Military History | Fall
Timeline of the Fall of Rome and the Barbarian Kingdoms
Posted 18 Nov 2009 at 15:02; Updated 02 Apr 2010 at 21:37
350's Julian's campaigns
The Roman General Julian, who later became Emperor, fought the Germanic Franks and Alamanni (roughly meaning 'All people') to standstill (MacDowall, 1990). Julian was, however, forced to allow the Franks within the Empire as Foederati (Federates). Under this arrangement the Franks offered military service in exchange for permanent settlements.
378 Battle of Adrianople
A Gothic coalition destroyed the Roman army at the Battle of Adrianople (MacDowall, 1990). The Goths had free rein in the Balkans for some years.
394 Battle of the Frigidus
The Emperor Theodosius employed 20,000 Goths in the army that faced the usurper Eugenius in the west (MacDowall, 1990; Wikipedia: Alaric I). The future Visigoth King Alaric I served as a leader of foederati in the campaign. The finale of the campaign was the Battle of the Frigidus fought at the passes of the Julian Alps. The Visigoths suffered disproportionately great losses and it was widely believed this was a mechanism to weaken the Gothic tribes.
395 Theodosius dies
Upon the death of Theodosius the empire was divided between his two sons, essentially the Latin speaking west under Honorius and Greek speaking east under Arcadius (MacDowall, 1990; Wikipedia: Alaric I).
Alaric I became King of the Visigoths (Wikipedia: Alaric I).
396 Visigoths ravage Greece
The Visigoths under King Alaric I ravaged Greece (MacDowall, 1990). The Western Roman magister militum Stilicho - himself the son of a Vandal - confronted Alaric. After some manoeuvring Stilicho gave Alaric a military command (magister militum per Illyricum) and settled his people in the northwest of Greece.
402 Visigoths invade Italy
In 401 or 402 the Visigoths under King Alaric I moved into Italy and ravaged the north (Wikipedia: Alaric I). Stilicho confronted Alaric at Pollentia (in modern Piedmont) and won the resulting battle (6 Apr 6 402; coinciding with Easter). It was a costly victory for Rome but barred the further progress of the Visigoths. Stilicho was subsequently criticised for having gained his victory by taking impious advantage of Easter. Apparently Alaric had trusted to the sanctity of Easter for immunity from attack. Alaric's wife was captured.
The Romans defeat the Visigoths again at Verona (Wikipedia: Alaric I). Alaric then left Italy, probably in 403. He had not indeed "penetrated to the city" but his invasion of Italy had produced important results. It had caused the imperial residence to be transferred from Milan to Ravenna and it had necessitated the withdrawal of Legio XX Valeria Victrix from Britain.
One result of the Visigothic activity was the Western Roman Emperor Flavius Augustus Honorius fortified himself in Ravenna (MacDowall, 1990; Wikipedia: Alaric I).
31 Dec 406 Vandals and Suevi cross the Rhine
The winter of 406 was bitterly cold and the Rhine river froze (MacDowall, 1990). On New Years Eve German tribes crossed the river and overran the frontier. The main attack comprised Vandals and Suevi accompanied by a clan of Alans. They were followed by Franks, Burgundians and Alamanni. These tribes ravaged Gaul.
The Roman army in Britain subsequently proclaimed Constantine as Emperor (MacDowall, 1990). Constantine crossed the Channel with the army and set himself up in Gaul. The Romans were never to return to Britain.
407 Constantine III
The Roman army in Britain elected Constantine III as emperor in opposition to Honorius then crossed to Gaul (Collins, 2004). Constantine made himself master of much of Gaul and Spain but Britain and Gaul north of the Loie were left to their own devices.
408 First Visigoth Siege of Rome
The Emperor Honorius had Stilicho, his councillors, and the families of the feoderati murdered (Wikipedia: Alaric I). Some 30,000 aggrieved feodorati joined Alaric in his march across the Julian Alps. In Sep 408 Alaric laid siege to Rome but in the face of hunger the citizens paid him to leave off.
409 Second Visigoth Siege of Rome
Having failed to negotiate a settlement with the Emperor Honorius the Visigoth King Alaric I besieged Rome a second time (Wikipedia: Alaric I). He, however, came to terms with the Roman senate and set up a rival emperor, the prefect of the city, a Greek named Priscus Attalus. The incompetent Attalus only lasted 11 months but managed to lose Africa to Honorius.
Suevic Kingdom during 5th-6th centuries
409 Suevi, Vandals and Alans invade Iberia
In autumn 409, on either 28 Sep or 12 Oct, a loose confederation of "barbarians" crossed the Pyrenees into Spain (Collins, 2004). These included the Suevi and Vandals - both Germanic groups - and the ethnically Sarmatian Alans.
Constantine III's troops in Spain did not resist the crossing (Collins, 2004). The Spanish priest Orosius wrote that this failure was to hide their own exactions on the civilian population.
The new comers engaged in a short period of looting and destruction before coming to an agreement with the Roman government (Collins, 2004). However the damage had been done and the peninsular underwent a period of famine, starvation and cannibalism.
When the usurper Constantine III ordered his general Gerontius to resign his command in Hispania, Gerontius mutinied and installed Maximus Tiranus as Emperor (Wikipedia: Maximus of Hispania). Gerontius may have been Maximus's father. Maximus controlled what was left of Roman Iberia (MacDowall, 1990) centered around Taragona and Barcelona on the coast. Maximus fought against the other two emperors, Constantine III and Honorius. Gerontius's forces defeated, but did not destroy, Constantine's forces in the first 18 months of Maximus's reign. However the conflict weakened the armies of both usurpers.
Maximus granted the Suevi official recognition (Foedus) for their settlement in Galicia (Collins, 2004). The Suevi kingdom was the first sub-Roman kingdom formed in the territory of the Roman Empire and was the first to mint coins (Wikipedia: Suebic Kingdom of Galicia; Wikipedia: Suevi). The Suevi, under king Hermerico, had two sub-tribes the Quadi and Marcomanni, and were accompanied by a small group of Buri (Wikipedia: Timeline of Germanic Kingdoms). They settled in Roman Galicia in the northwest. Suevi mainly settled near Braga (Bracara Augusta), Porto (Portus Cale), Lugo (Lucus Augusta) and Astorga (Asturica Augusta). Bracara Augusta, the modern city of Braga and former capital of Roman Galicia, became the capital of the Suevi. The Buri settled in the region between the rivers Cávado and Homem, in the area known as Terras de Bouro (Lands of the Buri).
410 Visigoths sack Rome
After more futile negotiations with Honorius Visigoth King Alaric I launched a surprised attack on Rome (Wikipedia: Alaric I). On 24 Aug 410 the Visigoths burst in by the Porta Salaria on the northeast of city. Alaric subsequently headed south but died of fever in Calabria.
Ataulph (410-415) became King of the Visigoths (Collins, 2004; Wikipedia: Ataulf).
Gerontius, the general of the usurper Maximus, besieged the other usurper, Constantine III, in Arles from 410 into 411 (Collins, 2004). This effort meant they could do nothing against the Suevi, Vandals and Alans in Spain. In fact they may not have wanted to as the barbarians could provide a pool of man power for their own cause.
411 Roman Emperor gives Iberia to Barbarians
The Emperor Honorius formally granted Lusitania to the Alans, Galicia to the Suevi and Hasdingi Vandals, and Baetica to the Silingi Vandals (Wikipedia: Timeline of Germanic Kingdoms). This was political expediency as was hiring the Visigoths to drive their barbarian brethren from Iberia.
Constantius III, Honorius's general, defeated the armies of both usurpers Maximus and Constantine III (Wikipedia: Maximus of Hispania). Constantius defeated and killed Maximus's general, Gerontius, at the Battle of Arles. Maximus subsequently forfeited his Imperial claims and entered a monastery.
415 Visigoths invade Iberia
King Ataulph of the Visigoths was murdered in a coup in Barcelona (Collins, 2004). The coup was short lived and the murderer was himself killed only a week later. Ataulph was probably in Spain making arrangements for the subsequent Visigothic intervention in the peninsular. Wallia became King and finalised the arrangements.
At the request of the Roman Emperor Honorius the Germanic Visigoths, under King Wallia, invaded the Iberian Peninsular from Aquitaine (Collins, 2004; Wikipedia: Timeline of Germanic Kingdoms says King Theodorid rather than Wallia). They fought several campaigns during 415-419 with the aim of destroying the Alans, Suevi, Vandals and the usurper Maximus. We have few details of the campaigns but the Alans and Silingi Vandals in the south and east were the main targets and were crushed.
416 Suevi expansion
The Visigoths invasion allowed the Suevi an brief expansion: at its heyday Suevi Galicia extended as far as Mérida or Seville (Wikipedia: Suebic Kingdom of Galicia).
By around 416 the Roman emperor only had armies in Italy and Africa (until 432) and in parts of southern Gaul (Collins, 2004). Those units in Britain, Spain and northern Gaul had been withdrawn or disbanded.
418 Visigoths kill Alan king
The Visigoths killed the Alan king Attaces in battle (Wikipedia: Timeline of Germanic Kingdoms). This branch of the Alans subsequently asked the Hasdingi Vandal king Gunderic to accept the Alan crown. The Alans maintained their ethnic identity within the confederation (Collins, 2004). There is no mention of the Silingi Vandals after this date and the survivors probably joined the Hasdingi. [Some authors give the date as 418 and others as 426 (Wikipedia: Alans).]
419 Suevi and Romans defeat Hasdingi Vandals
A new treaty with the empire resulted in the Visigoths withdrawing from the peninsular into Aquitaine (Collins, 2004). Collins believes this was the empire considered the Bagaudae (effectively large scale bandit gangs) north of the Loire a greater threat than the surviving Alans, Suevi and Vandals in the peninsular.
Theoderic I (419-51) became King of the Visigoths (Collins, 2004).
The Vandals expanded to fill the vacuum left by the Visigoths and took over much of the peninsular (Collins, 2004). However the Suevi, with Roman assistance, beat off an attack by the Hasdingi Vandals (Wikipedia: Timeline of Germanic Kingdoms).
Constntius was briefly emperor (Collins, 2004).
422 Vandals defeat Romans
The Magister Militun Castinus led an imperial army from Italy into Spain (Collins, 2004). He had a detachment of Visigoths with him but they failed to support him at the critical moment and he was defeated by the Vandals in the province of Baetica and withdrew. Castinus did, however, captured the usurper Maximus who was taken back to Italy and executed.
423-25 Honorius, Johannes and Valentinian III
When the emperor Honorius died in 423 he was succeeded by Johannes (Collins, 2004). Johannes was overthrown in 425 by an eastern Roman expedition from Constantinople. The East Romans installed Valentinian III as emperor.
427 Roman Civil War
A civil war broke out between Boniface, Count of Africa, and Felix, Master of the Soldiers in Italy (Collins, 2004). This conflict may have been the result of machinations by Aetius, the commander in southern Gaul. Boniface defeated the first expedition sent by Felix to Africa.
429 Vandals and Alans move to North Africa
The Vandals and the Alans, under King Gaiseric, crossed the straits to North Africa (Collins, 2004; Wikipedia: Timeline of Germanic Kingdoms). Boniface may have invited the barbarians into his domain to help in the fight against Felix. If so this was to horribly backfire when the Vandals established a kingdom in Africa over the next decade.
The Buri vanish into the Suevi kingdom (Wikipedia: Timeline of Germanic Kingdoms).
430 Battle of Mérida
With the Vandal forces in Africa Suevi forces under under Hermigar, moved south from Galicia (Collins, 2004). A Vandal detachment recrossed from Africa and defeated the Suevi in the Battle of Mérida. However the Vandal now concentrated their efforts in Africa and effectively abandoned the peninsular to the Suevi. [Wikipedia: Timeline of Germanic Kingdoms says it was the Alans that fought and won the battle, that it was against the Suevi and Romans, and that it occurred in 428.]
In May 430 Aetius murdered Felix and seized power in Italy (Collins, 2004). Boniface brought his army over from Africa and defeated Aetius in battle but died from the wounds he received himself. Aetius took control of what remained of the Western Roman Empire and without a Roman army present the Vandals were free to expand in Africa.
438 Peace between Suevi and Galaicos
Hermerico, the first Suevi king of Galicia, ratified the peace with the Galaicos people and, tired of fighting, abdicated in favour of his son Rechila (438-48) (Collins, 2004; Wikipedia: Timeline of Germanic Kingdoms).
439 Vandals and Alans capture Carthage
The Vandals and Alans complete their conquest of Roman Africa by capturing Carthage (Collins, 2004).
The Suevi established themselves in Mérida, and the west and south of Spain (Collins, 2004). Only Tarraconensis remained under direct Roman control (Collins, 2004). Bagaudae began operating in the middle Ebro and sacked a number of towns.
442 Romans recognise Vandal control of Africa
The Romans recognised the Vandal possession of Africa in a treaty (Collins, 2004).
448 Suevi become Catholic
Suevi king Rechila died and left his expanding state to his son Rechiarius (448-55) (Collins, 2004; Wikipedia: Timeline of Germanic Kingdoms). Rechiarius, who had converted to Roman Catholicism circa 447 (Wikipedia: Suevi), imposed his Catholic faith on the Suevi population. Soon, Rechiarius married a daughter of the Gothic king Theodoric I. Rechiarius also began a wave of attacks on the Roman province of Tarraconense.
451 Battle of Chalons
The Hunnic leader Attila led a large army of Huns and subject Germans into France (Collins, 2004; MacDowall, 1990). The local Roman commander Aetius managed to scrape together an army of Romans, Franks, Visigoths, Alans, Bretons and Burgundians. Aetius checked Attila at the Battle of Chalons on the Plains of Champagne.
Thorismund became King of the Visigoths (Wikipedia: Timeline of Germanic Kingdoms).
452 Attila invades Italy
Attila turned south and invaded Italy (MacDowall, 1990). Famine and the operation of an East Roman Army in his rear forced him out.
453 Visigoth King Theodoric II
Theodoric II (453-66) became King of the Visigoths (Collins, 2004; Wikipedia: Timeline of Germanic Kingdoms).
454 Ibero-Romans seek Visigothic help
The emperor Valentinian III had Aetius murdered (Collins, 2004).
According to Wikipedia: Timeline of Germanic Kingdoms the Ibero-Roman population sought Visigoth help against Suevi incursions.
455 Pope Leo I
The Bishop of Rome proclaimed himself Pope, under the name of Leo I, and assumed control over all of Western Christianity (Wikipedia: Timeline of Germanic Kingdoms).
The emperor Valentinian III was murdered in revenge for this role in Aetius's death (Collins, 2004). A Gallic aristocrat called Avitus took the throne with Visigothic military backing.
The Suevi raided the province of Carthaginiensis, ignored Roman diplomatic efforts, and attacked Tarraconensis (Collins, 2004).
The Vandals sacked Rome (Collins, 2004).
456 Battle of Orbigo
Avitus encouraged his Visigothic allies to counter the Suevi threat to Tarraconensis (Collins, 2004). King Theodoric II of the Visigoths led a large army of Roman foederates, his own Visigoths and Burgundians directed by kings Gundioc and Chilperic (Wikipedia: Suevi), across the Pyrenees into Hispania to face his brother-in-law Rechiarius, King of the Suevi. Theodoric defeated the Suevi at the Battle of Orbigo, on the Orbigo river near modern day Astorga. Rechiarius was captured and executed by his brother-in-law. The Visigoths took direct control of most of the peninsular although southern Gaul remained the main area of Visigothic occupation and Toulouse the administrative capital and main royal residence. The empire retained control of the coastal regions of Tarraconensis and parts of the Ebro valley. The Suevi were now cornered in the northwest, in Galicia and northern Lusitania. Rival candidates for the Suevi throne appeared, grouped in two factions, those who followed Frantán and those who followed Aguiulfo (dependent of the Visigoths) (Wikipedia: Timeline of Germanic Kingdoms). The river Minius probably divided the two tribes, Quadi and Marcomanni, that constituted the Suevi nation.
457 Suevi King Maldras
Maldras became King of all the Suevi (Wikipedia: Timeline of Germanic Kingdoms).
Majorian (458-63) became emperor (Collins, 2004).
459 Suevi divide
After the death of Suevi King Maldras , a new division appeared between Frumario and Remismundo (Wikipedia: Timeline of Germanic Kingdoms).
Majorian, the last emperor to visit Spain, arrived on his way to attack the Vandals in Africa (Collins, 2004). He made a formal entry into Caesaraugusta (Zaragoza) but didn't oppose Visigothic control of the peninsular. He was preparing a fleet at Cartagena for the invasion of Africa but, in a surprise attack, the Vandals captured the fleet in harbour, and Majorian subsequently returned to Italy.
Ricimer, the Master of Soldiers who was of mixed Suevi and Goth origin, deposed and executed the emperor Majorian (Collins, 2004).
463 Suevi reunite; Suevi King Remismundo
Remismundo united the Suevi and became King (Wikipedia: Timeline of Germanic Kingdoms).
466 Visigoth King Euric
At this time most Suevi were pagan and their Ibero-Roman subjects Priscillianist (Wikipedia: Timeline of Germanic Kingdoms). The Suevi unifier Remismund asked the Visigothic king Theodoric II for a missionary to convert the kingdom (Wikipedia: Suebic Kingdom of Galicia) . Theodoric II sent an Arian missionary named Ajax who subsequently brought the Suevi into the Arian church.
Euric (466-84) became King of the Visigoths by murdering his brother Theoderic II (Collins, 2004). Euric expanded Visigothic territory in the south of Gaul by war and treaty.
468 Suevi take Conimbriga and Lisbon
Suevi sacked the Roman city of Conimbriga, near modern Coimbra, and Lusídio, Roman governor of Lisbon, delivered the city to the Suevi (Wikipedia: Timeline of Germanic Kingdoms).
469 Suevi King Teodemundo
Teodemundo became King of the Suevi (Wikipedia: Timeline of Germanic Kingdoms).
470 Visigoths defeat Suevi
King Euric of the Visigoths drove the Suevi from southern Galicia and Lusitania (Wikipedia: Timeline of Germanic Kingdoms).
474 Visigoths take Provence and Auvergne
After years of skilful war and diplomacy King Euric of the Visigoths occupied Provence and forced the Romans to hand over Auvergne (Collins, 2004).
475 Independent Visigothic Kingdom
King Euric (who had unified the various quarrelling factions of the Visigoths) forced the Roman government to grant the Visigothic kingdom full independence (Wikipedia: Timeline of Germanic Kingdoms).
4 Sep 476 Fall of Rome
The army in Italy deposed the last Emperor of the Western Roman Empire, Romulus Augustus (MacDowall, 1990). Their general Odoacer, a chieftain of the Germanic Heruli, proclaimed himself King of Italy. (Wikipedia: Timeline of Germanic Kingdoms). This is the conventional date for the fall of the West Roman Empire.
Euric's Visigothic forces quickly overran the remaining imperial holdings in northeast Spain - the Ebro valley and Mediterranean coast (Collins, 2004).
484 Visigoth King Alaric II
Greatest extent of the Visigothic kingdom
of Toulouse, c. 500
At Euric's death of natural causes in 484 the Visigoths were the most powerful of the successor states to the Western Roman Empire (Collins, 2004). Within Gaul the Visigothic kingdom stretched from the valleys of the Loire and the Rhone rivers to the Pyrenees plus most of Spain. The exceptions were the northwest were the remnants of the Suevi held out, and small areas controlled by the Basques and Cantabrians (Wikipedia: Visigoths).
Alaric II (484-507), the son of Euric, became King of the Visigoths (Collins, 2004).
About 486 Clovis
Clovis I, one of several Frankish leaders, crushed Syagrius, the last of the independent Roman rulers in northern Gaul (Collins, 2004). This made brought the Merovingian Franks to the northern border of the Visigothic kingdom. Over the following years Clovis expanded east into the lands of the Alamans, then south down the Rhone into the lands of the Burgundians.
493 Ostrogothic Kingdom in Italy
At the urging of the Eastern Roman Emperor the Ostrogoths moved into Italy and established a kingdom there (MacDowall, 1990).
494-497 "Goths entered Spain" and "Goths acquired settlements in Spain"
During this period the Visigoths relocated from southern Gaul into Spain although the royal court stayed at Toulouse (Collins, 2004). Collins believes this is because although they got revenue from Gallic estates (2/3 of the revenue) the were probably not property owners themselves and the search for land probably prompted the move across the Pyrenees.
496-7 Burdunellus the Tyrant
In 496 a guy called Burdunellus (Little Mule) set himself up as a tyrant, probably emperor, somewhere in Spain (Collins, 2004). Collins guesses that it was the Ebro valley, possibly Zaragoza. A year later Burdunellus's men handed him over to the Visigothic authorities and he was executed.
506 Peter the Tyrant
The Visigoths took Dertosa and killed the resident tyrant, Peter (Collins, 2004).
507 Battle of Vouillé
The Franks under Clovis I, with an allied contingent of Burgundians, defeated the Visigoths at Vouillé near Poitiers(Collins, 2004). The Visigoths lost their king, Alaric II - killed in battle, Toulouse, and control of Aquitaine. Frankish forces reached Barcelona.
Gesalic, an illegitimate son of Alaric II, became King of the Visigoths (Collins, 2004). He made Narbonne his campital and organised resistance to the Franks. Sometime 507-511 the Burgundians defeated Gesalic and sacked Narbonne.
In support of the Visigoths the Ostrogoths, under Theoderic, overran Provence and forced the Franks to withdraw from Septimania (Collins, 2004).
511–526 Visigoths and Ostrogoths reunite
Forces of the Ostrogothic King Theodoric drove King Gesalic into exile in Africa (Collins, 2004). Theodoric favoured Amalaric. Amalaric was the son of Alaric II and Theodegotho (Theodoric's daughter), making him Gesalic half-brother. Amalaric was also a minor so Theodoric assumed the crown himself thus uniting the Visigoths and Ostrogoths. Ostrogothic governors ruled in Spain; Theudis, who later became king, was one of them. The centre of Visigothic rule shifted first to Barcelona then inland and south to Toledo (Wikipedia: Timeline of Germanic Kingdoms).
Gesalic attempted to regain his kingdom (Collins, 2004). Ostrogothic forces under Ibba, one of Theoderic's generals, defeated Gesalic's army, captured him in flight on the river Durance, and executed him.
522-3 Visigoth King Amalaric
Amalaric became King of the Visigoths (Collins, 2004; Wikipedia: Timeline of Germanic Kingdoms says 426).
531 Visigoth King Theudis
Amalaric was defeated by the Franks and then killed in Barcelona (Collins, 2004). He may have been killed by the Franks or by his own men.
Theudis (531-48), an Ostrogoth and one time governor of Spain, was elected King of the Visigoths (Collins, 2004). During his reign he defeated an invading Frankish army, lost Ceuta to the Byzantines, and sent an expedition to recover Ceuta, which failed disastrously. Apparently Theudis's personal following comprised the 2,000 armed slaves of his Hispano-Roman wife (Collins cites Procopius). From this point election rather than dynastic sentiment became the dominating factor in succession.
548 Visigoth King Theudisclus
King Theudis was murdered (Collins, 2004).
Theudisclus became King of the Visigoths (Collins, 2004). Theudisclus had previously defeated a Frankish raid into Tarraconensis, which may have been Childebert I's attempt to capture Zaragoza.
549 Visigoth King Agila
Theudisclus was murdered during a banquet in Seville (Collins, 2004).
Agila (549-54) became King of the Visigoths (Collins, 2004). There is conflicting evidence for the major events in Agila's reign but Collins believes:
- A Gothic noble called Athanagild revolted in Seville in opposition to Agila's election.
- The Byzantine emperor Justinian I sent imperial army to Spain, probably in support of the rightful king Agila.
- Cordoba also revolted from Agila and stayed free of Visigothic royal authority until 572. It may have been under imperial control or under independent rule.
550-1 Byzantine's arrive
The Byzantine emperor Justinian I sent imperial army to Spain, probably in support of the rightful king Agila (Collins, 2004). The imperials made no effort to reconquer the peninsular but they did seize a series of ports and fortresses along the south-eastern and southern coasts. They took control of Granada and southernmost Hispania Baetica to create the province of Spania (Wikipedia: Visigoths). Cartagena became the administrative centre of the new Byzantine province.
The rebel Athanagild became King of the Visigoths (Collins, 2004). He based himself at Seville for his on going wars against the Byzantines in the south.
559 Suevi King Teodomiro
Teodomiro became King of the Suevi (Wikipedia: Timeline of Germanic Kingdoms).
568 Visigoth King Liuva I
Athanagild died of natural causes in Toledo (Collins, 2004).
After a five month gap Liuva I became King of the Visigoths (Collins, 2004; Wikipedia: Timeline of Germanic Kingdoms says 567.)
569 Visigoth King Leovigild
Liuva divided the Visigothic kingdom and gave one half to his younger brother Leovigild (569-586) (Collins, 2004). Leovigild ws based at Toledo and Liuva at Narbonne. Leovigild also married Gosuinth, Anthanagild's widow.
570 Visigoths raid Bastania
Miro became King of the Suevi (Wikipedia: Timeline of Germanic Kingdoms).
King Leovigild of the Visigoths began military actions with the explicit purpose of conquering all of Hispania (Wikipedia: Timeline of Germanic Kingdoms). From 570 AD Leovigild had a pattern of annual military campaigns throughout his reign; this may have been true for other Visigothic kings but we lacks the sources to verify it (Collins, 2004). In 570 Leovigild raided the region of "Bastania" and drove off an imperial force that tried to stop him at Malaga.
571 Visigoths take Asinoda
A Visigothic force retook Asinoda (Medina Sidonia) and slaughtered the imperial garrison (Collins, 2004).
In 571 or 573 Liuva I died leaving Leovigild in sole charge of the Visigothic kingdom (Collins, 2004)
572 Britons in Galicia
A Visigothic force retook Cordoba and many other cities and fortresses from the Byzantines (Collins, 2004). This activity was probably in the Guadalquivir valley. A "multitude of rustics were killed" and Collins believes these were what were earlier called Bagaudae, i.e. bandits.
Late in the fifth century and early in the sixth century, immigrants from Britain and Brittany settled in the north of Galicia (Wikipedia: Suebic Kingdom of Galicia), As a result the area acquired the name Britonia.
?? TODO ?? I need to check but I think this is when the Britons moved to Brittany in France as well.
Between 572 and 574, Leovigild invaded the valley of the Douro, pushing the Suevi northwards (Wikipedia: Suebic Kingdom of Galicia). He took most of the northern regions (Cantabria) and regained part of the southern areas lost to the Byzantines (Wikipedia: Visigoths).
573 Visigoths devastate Sabaria
The Visigoths conquered the region of Sabaria, possibly in the north between Caprara and Salmantica (Salamanca) (Collins, 2004).
575 Suevi and Visigoth peace
In 575 the Suevi king, Miro, made a peace treaty with Leovigild (Wikipedia: Suebic Kingdom of Galicia).
583 Suevi King Eborico
In 583 the Suevi King Miro supported the rebellion of the Catholic Gothic prince Hermenegild and was overthrown as a result (Wikipedia: Suebic Kingdom of Galicia). Eborico (also called Eurico) became King of the Suevi.
584 Visigoths defeat Suevi
Andeca became King of the Suevi (Wikipedia: Timeline of Germanic Kingdoms).
The Visigothic King Leovigild invades the Suevic kingdom and finally defeated it (Wikipedia: Timeline of Germanic Kingdoms).
585 Suevi pass from history
Andeca, the last king of the Suevi, held out for a year before surrendering to the Visigothic King Leovigild (Wikipedia: Timeline of Germanic Kingdoms). With his surrender this branch of the Suevi vanished into the Visigothic kingdom.
586 Visigoth King Reccared
Reccared became King of the Visigoths (Wikipedia: Timeline of Germanic Kingdoms).
587 Visigoth King becomes Catholic
Reccared, the Visigothic king at Toledo, having been converted to Catholicism put an end to dissension on the question of Arianism and launched a movement to unify the various religious doctrines that existed in Hispania (Wikipedia: Timeline of Germanic Kingdoms).
601 Visigoth King Liuva II
Liuva II became King of the Visigoths (Wikipedia: Timeline of Germanic Kingdoms).
604 Visigoth King Witteric
Witteric became King of the Visigoths (Wikipedia: Timeline of Germanic Kingdoms).
610 Visigoth King Gundemar
Gundemar became King of the Visigoths (Wikipedia: Timeline of Germanic Kingdoms).
612 Visigoth King Sisebur
Sisebur became King of the Visigoths (Wikipedia: Timeline of Germanic Kingdoms).
621 Visigoth King Suintila
Suintila became King of the Visigoths (Wikipedia: Timeline of Germanic Kingdoms).
624 Visigothic Iberia
631 Visigoth King Sisenand
Sisenand became King of the Visigoths (Wikipedia: Timeline of Germanic Kingdoms).
636 Visigoth King Chintila
Chintila became King of the Visigoths (Wikipedia: Timeline of Germanic Kingdoms).
640 Visigoth King Tulga
Tulga became King of the Visigoths (Wikipedia: Timeline of Germanic Kingdoms).
642 Visigoth King Chindasvinth
This seems to be a period of conflict. Nelson (1991) gives these rulers between 642 and 672.
- Chindasvinth (642-653)
- Suniefred ??
- Recceswinth (642-653)
- Wamba (649-672)
Wikipedia: Timeline of Germanic Kingdoms has a much simpler progression:
- Chindasvinth (642-649)
- Recceswinth (649-672)
- Wamba (672-680)
I tend to believe Nelson but need to do some more exploration.
649 Visigoth King Recceswinth
Recceswinth became King of the Visigoths (Wikipedia: Timeline of Germanic Kingdoms).
672 Visigoth King Wamba
Wamba became King of the Visigoths (Wikipedia: Timeline of Germanic Kingdoms).
680 Visigoth King Ervig
Ervig became King of the Visigoths (Nelson, 1991).
687 Visigothic King Egica
According to Nelson (1991) Egica ruled (687-702). This makes him overlap Witiza (698-710). Wikipedia: Timeline of Germanic Kingdoms doesn't mention Egica and has Witiza assume power in 701.
698 Visigoth King Witiza
Witiza became King of the Visigoths (Nelson, 1991; Wikipedia: Timeline of Germanic Kingdoms says 701).
710 Visigoth King Roderic
Roderic became King of the Visigoths (Nelson, 1991).
Also see my full list of sources.
Collins, R. (2004). Visigothic Sain 409-711. Blackwell.
MacDowall,S. (1990). Goths, Huns and Romans. Argus Books.
Nelson, L. H [Trans.] (1991). The Chronicle of San Juan de la Pena: A Fourteenth-Century Official History of the Crown of Aragon. University of Pennsylvania Press.