Military History |
Timeline for the Spanish and Portuguese Empires
Posted 9 Dec 2003
Very much a work in progress. More Portuguese than Spanish.
|1415||Capture of Ceuta|
|1415-1433||15 Voyages along northwest Africa|
|1419-1425||(Re)discovery of Madeira and beginning of settlement|
|1424 or 1425||Unsuccessful expedition of Fernando de Castro to the Canarias|
|1426||Conçalo Velho reached "Terra Alta"|
|1427||(Re)discovery of the Azores by Diogo de Silves|
|1431 or 1432||Transplant of domestic animals to the Azores|
|1434||First certain past Cape Bojador by Gil eanes.|
|1435||Gil Eanes and Alfonso Baldaia voyage beyond Cape Bojador.|
|1436||Afonso Baldaia to Rio do Ouro (today Villa Cisneros)|
Voyage to rio de Ouro
Failed attack on Tangier; capture of Prince Fernando.
|1440||Expedition to Canarias|
|1441 or 1442||Antão Gonçalves takes first captives at Rio do Ouro.|
|1441||Nuno Tristão to Cabo Branco|
|1443||Nuno Tristão to islands of Gete and Garças in Arguim bay.|
Gonçalo de Sintra to Arguim
Anto Gonçalves, Diogo Afonso, and Gomes Pires on trade and raid to Rio do Ouro.
Nuno Tristão to the Terra dos Negros (in Senegal)
Lanzarote to islands of Naar and Tider to raid for Negroes.
Dinis Dias to Cape Verde and Ilha da Palma.
Dinis Eanes, Álvaro Gil, Mafaldo (Gonçalo Coelho) to Terra dos Negros.
Antão Gonçalves, Garçia Homem, Diogo Afonso to Cape Blanco and Arguim.
Large expedition of Lanzarote and men of Lagos, plus others of Lisbon, etc, to region of Arguim. Slave raids.
Lanzarote and Gomes Pires to Senegal region and Cape Verde.
Álvaro Fernades beyond Senegal and Cape Verde to cabo dos Mastos.
Gomes Pires to Rio do Ouro. Trade and raid.
Estevão Afonso and six caravelas to Terra dos Negros.
|1487-1488||Bartolomeu Dias sailed around Cape of Good hope to east coast of Africa to about present-day Great Fish River.|
|1492-1493||Christopher Columbus to America|
|1494||Treaty of Tordesillas|
|1497-1499||Vasco da Gama to east coast of Africa and India|
|1499-1502||Voyages of Gaspar and Miguel Corte-Real to America in the region of Labrador, Newfoundland, and perhaps New England.|
|1500-1501||Pedro Álvares Cabral's discovery of Brazil while en route to India|
|1500||Most probable date of Joo Fernandes Lavrador and Pedro de Barcelos voyage to Greenland.|
|1502||Vasco de Gama bombards Calicut and establishes a feitoria in Cochin.|
|1503||First trip of Afonso de Albuquerque to Asia.|
|1504||Duarte Pacheco Pereira repulses the Samorin of Calicut from Cochin. King Manuel grants concession to Lucas Rem and the Welsers to outfit ships in the 1505 fleet.|
|1505||Franscisco de Almeida named first viceroy. He ravages Mombasa and conquers Quilon. His regimento contains beginnings of an imperial strategy. pedro de Anaia takes Kilwa.|
|1506||Lourenço de Almeida visits Ceylon. King Manuel establishes spice trade as royal monopoly. Afonso de Albuquerque returns to Asia with Tristão da Cunha, and they capture Socotra. Albuqueque bears secret orders to succeed Almeida when term expires. Madagascar discovered.|
|1507||Albuquerque invests Ormuz, which agrees to accept Portuguese garrison, but reneges when Albuquerque's captains desert to Viceroy Almeida.|
|1508||Arzila besieged by Portuguese. Mameluke fleet descends from Suez into Indian Ocean, joins Malik Ayaz at Diu, and defeats small Portuguese fleet under Loureno de Almeida.|
|1509||Quarrel between Afonso de Albuquerque and Viceroy Francisco de Almeida. Almeida defeats Mameluke fleet in Diu harbour, establishing Portuguese naval supremacy in Indian Ocean. Marshal of Portugal arrives and installs Albuquerque in power. Diogo Lopez Sequeira visits Malacca.|
|j1510||Albuquerque conquers Goa.|
|1511||Albuquerque conquers Malacca. He sends Francisco Serrão to discover Moluccas.|
|1513||Albuquerque repulsed before Aden. He sails into Red Sea, becoming first Western commander to do so, but early reversal of monsoons forces him to lay over on barren Kamaran Island. Jorge Álvares arrives in China. Portuguese capture Azemmour.|
|1514||Probable date of Antnio fernandes's first trip into East African interior of Monomotapa.|
|1515||Albuquerque returns to Ormuz and captures it, is dismissed and dies on return to Goa. Portuguese overwhelmed at Mamora.|
|1517||Fernão Peres de Andrade arrives in Canton.|
|1518||Lopo Soares de Albergaria founds fortress in Ceylon.|
|1519||Ferdinand Magellan leaves Europe on voyage of circumnavigation.|
|1520||Diogo Lopes de Sequeira, on foray into Red Sea, drops off the embassy of Rodrigo de Lima at Massawa, whence it establishes contact with "Prester John", the Ethiopian emperor Lebna Dengal.|
|1521||Death of King Manuel. Succession of King João III.|
|1522||Remnants of Magellan's expedition arrive in Moluccas, inaugurating hostilities there between Portugal and Spain over the next decades.|
|Portuguese build fort of São João de Ternate.|
|1524||Luso-Spanish conference meets between Elvas and Badajoz to debate ownership of Moluccas on basis of Treaty of Tordesillas agreement.|
|Vasco da Gama sent back to India as first viceroy since Almeida. Fort at Passumah (Sumatra) abandoned.|
|1525||Johore attacks Malacca, whose captain-general, Pero Mascarenhas, retaliates.|
|1526||Samoriin of Calicut invests Portuguese fortress there.|
|1529||Treaty of Zaragoza over Moluccan question. double marriage between Emperor Charles V, King João II, and their sisters.|