Military History |
Christian Rulers of the Reconquista
Posted 22 Oct 2002
Originally a country in the Spanish March. Ramiro became the first king of Aragon upon the death of his father Sancho the Great of Navarre in 1035.
Counts of Aragon:
- Aznar Galíndez I (809-839)
- Galindo Aznárez I (c. 830-867)
- Aznar Galíndez II (867-893)
- Galindo Aznárez II (893-922)
- Andregoto Galíndez (922-925)
Counts of Aragon under Navarese Hegemony
- García Sánchez I (925-970)
- Sancho Garcés II (994-1000)
- García Sánchez II (994-1000)
- Sancho Garcés III (1000-1035)
Kings of Aragon
- Ramiro I (1035-64). First king of Aragon. Illegitimate son of Sancho the Great of Navarre.
- Sancho Ramírez (1064-1094). Eldest son of Ramiro I.
- Pedro I (1094-1104).
- Alfonso I (1104-1134)
- Ramiro II (1134-1137)
- Petronilla (1137-1162)
- Alfonso II (1162-1196)
- Pedro II (1196-1213)
- Jaime I (1213-1276)
- Pedro III (1276-1285)
- Alfonso III (1285-1291)
- Jaime II (1291-1327)
- Alfonso IV (1327-1336)
- Pedro IV (1336-1387)
- Juan I (1387-1395)
- Martin I (1395-1410)
- Interregnum (1410-1412)
- Fernando I (1412-1416)
- Alfonso V (1416-1458)
- Juan II (1458-1479)
- Fernando II (1479-1516)
Barcelona / Catalonia
Catalonia was a country in the Spanish March. It was Catalonia was never completely independent (Víctor Manteca, Private Communication). It passed from being a simple feudal vassal of the Carolingian French kings, to enjoy a high degree of autonomy under count Guifred I. Then it fell to Aragon orbit, gaining more and more importance within, till count Ramón Berenguer IV married to the Queen of Aragon, Petronila, joining completely the two states in the person of their son, Alfonso II of Aragon, first king of the Aragonese-Catalonian united kingdom (one of the most powerful states in the Mediterranean in the late Middle Ages).
Counts of Barcelona dependent on France
- Bera (801-820)
- Bernat (820-844)
- Aleran (844-852)
- Salomó (864-873)
- Guifred I (870-897)
- Guifred Borrell (897-911)
- Sunyear (911-947)
- Borrell II (947-992)
- Ramón Borrell (992-1017)
- Berenguer Ramón I (1017-1035)
- Ramón Berenguer I (1035-1076)
- Ramón Berenguer II (1076-1082)
- Berenguer Ramón II (1076 ?? -1096)
- Ramón Berenguer III (1096-1131)
- Ramón Berenguer IV (1131-1162)
León / Asturia
The Kingdom of León evolved out of the Kingdom of Asturias (910). León was the largest of the Christian states and included the Galician counties and the County of Castile except when these were indpendent. In 909 the King of León took the Imperial title to emphasise Leónese dominance over the other Christian states which were becoming separate Kingdoms in their own right.
Kings of Asturia
- Pelayo (718-737)
- Favila (737-739)
- Alfonso I the Catholic (739-757)
- Fruela the Cruel (757-768)
- Aurelius (768-774)
- Silo (774-783)
- Mauregatus (783-788)
- Vermudo I the Deacon (788-791)
- Alfonso II the Chaste (791-842)
- Ramiro I (842-850)
- Ordoño I (850-866)
- Alfonso III the Great (866-910) was in 909 proclaimed Emperor by his sons after they rebelled and usurped his kingdom.
Kings of León
- Ordoño II (914-923).
- Alfonso IV (925-931) *
- Ramiro II (930-951).
- Ordoño III (951-956)
- Sancho I the Fat (956-958, 959-966)
- Ramiro III (966-985)
- Vermudo II (982-999)
- Alfonso V the Noble (999-1027)
- Vermudo III (1027-37)
- Sancho the Great of Navarre and León (1033-35).
- Vermudo III (1035-37)
- Ferdinand I of León and Castile (1037-65).
- Alfonso VI (1065-1109). Second son of Ferdinand of León and Castile.
* Víctor Manteca.tells me "Alfonso IV became King of Leon in 925 after a civil war where he was aided by Sancho Garcés I of Navarra. In 931 his wife died and he gave the throne to his brother Ramiro II. Soon after, he regretted this decision and tried to take the throne again by force, but was defeated by Ramiro II who ordered to blind him (taking out his eyes) and imprisoned him till his death in 933."
The county was created with the settlement of Burgos in 880. It was part of the Kingdom of León, and included Cantabria and the Basque provinces of Alava and Vizcaya. The county became a Kingdom in 1035.
Counts of Castile
- Fernan Gonzalez (931-970). United Castile in 950 (or 946 or 931??).
- Garcia Fernandez (970-995)
- Sancho Garcia (995-1017)
- Garcia (1017-1028)
- Ferdinand I of León and Castile (1035-65). Second son of Sancho the Great of Navarre. Crowned king of Castile by Vermudo III of León, who he later kills thus acquiring the Leónese crown as well.
- Sancho II (1065-72). Eldest son of Ferdinand of León and Castile.
- Subsquently merged with Crown of Leon.
In 905 the lordship of Pamplona became the Kingdom of Navarre. It was a Basque land bounded in the west by Castile and in the east by Aragon and Sobrarbe.
Lords of Pamplona
- Iñigo Arista (c. 816-851)
- García Iñíguez (851-c. 880)
- García Jiménez ??
- Fortún Garcés I (c. 880-905)
Kings of Navarre
- Sancho Garcés I (905-925)
- García Snchez I (925-971)
- Sancho Garcés II (971-994)
- García Sánchez II the Tremulous (994-1004)
- Sancho Garcs II the Great (1000-35). Also gained Castile upon his marriage (Kinder &Hilgemann, 1964, suggest this is 1029). Absorbed Basque county of Ribagorza in 1018. Conquered León, and assumed crown in 1033.
- Garcia IV (1035-54). Eldest son of Sancho the Great.
- Sancho (1054-76). Eldest son of Garcia IV.
Mostly just a county of Leon. Had a short history as independent Kingdom under Garcia. Included the embryonic Portugal until this became independent.
- Garcia (1065-71). Third son of Ferdinand of León and Castile.
Víctor Manteca sent me some info on the Kings of Majorca. King of Aragon, Jaime I the Conqueror gave as heritance to his second son, Jaime, the recently conquered to muslims Balearic islands, Sardinia, Roselló and Montpellier, with the name of Kingdom of Majorca. He became king as Jaime II (1276). The Kingdom of Majorca was at constant strife with its former parent Aragon, till Pedro IV the Ceremonious of Aragon conquered the kingdom and annexed it again to Aragon after the Battle of Lluchmajor (1349) in which Jaime III the Unfortunate of Majorca died. His son, Jaime IV, tried unsuccessfully to recover the kingdom.
The Kings were:
- Jaime II (1276-1311)
- Sancho I (1311-1324)
- Jaime III the Unfortunate (1324-1349)
- Jaime IV (1349)
Other Counties of the Spanish March
Included counties of Besalu, Cerdaña, Urgel, Ribagorza and Sobrarbe. (Aragon was formed out of two of these ??)